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Everything posted by Alex_Sor

  1. What I wrote was taken by me from textbooks that are basic (and time-tested for tens of years) for training Chemical Engineers in the former USSR. In addition, I have on hand chromatograms of various processes for obtaining alcohol. In particular, I have repeatedly compared the results of obtaining alcohol with the use of copper in pipes and in the jacket of the heater. You are writing about an ideal process that contains only one kind of pure substances, but I am writing about the entire distillation process, there are no pure substances inside the tank and the composition of the mixtur
  2. I wish you the best of luck on your journey. There are only two companies in the USA that make continuous columns. One of them has been making the same model (construction) for 100 years already Only different sizes I see that the alcohol and whiskey industry is very conservative. Everyone is satisfied with the "big shining tanks" of steel and copper. Nobody thinks that you can get three times the distillation rate from the same place in the room.
  3. I completely agree! I have been in Automated Control and Embedded Systems for over 20 years, and I am a "very trained pessimist" when it comes to electronics and automation applications. In addition, all developers of "remote control" for some reason forget that Wi-FI does not have a guaranteed data delivery, and is very dependent on the level of external interference. (Especially from spark interference) And the Internet Protocol TCP/IP itself does not guarantee the delivery time of the data packet at all, does not guarantee the delivery of the data packet itself, does not guarant
  4. Hi! I want to give my opinion if you are interested. 1) for the US market, it is required to comply with the conditions of fire safety requirements, in particular, hot alcohol and electricity are very dangerous. This falls under the zoning: C1D2. Therefore, any electronics that do not have a UL listing requires special permission and inspections and examinations. Therefore, all electronics "not UL listing" can only be used by small manufactures "for themselves" and at their own peril and risk. Therefore, your electronics cannot be applied (and sold) to large alcohol factories.
  5. Hi Ryan! Welcome to the forum Will you buy ready-made equipment for the production of alcohol and vodka, or will you design the equipment yourself?
  6. It is pointless ๐Ÿ™‚ Packings (filling, backfilling) inside the column play the role of increasing the area and smoother distribution of the temperature difference over the height of the column. Main problems: 1) The fill column cannot act as a stripping column because solids will clog all the passages. 2) with a large diameter of the column, there is a big problem of uniform distribution of reflux over the diameter of the column and the vapor velocity upward along the diameter of the column. 3) in the column "with filling" (nozzles are filled up) it is impossible to
  7. The middle esters are formed at elevated (more than 40 ยฐ C) temperatures and when acidic esters are heated. The middle esters are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in hydrocarbons and organic solvents. Under the action of water or an alkali solution, the middle esters can hydrolyze to form first alcohol and alkyl sulfuric acid, and then alcohol and sulfuric acid ๐Ÿ™‚ Esters of wines and cognacs are mainly represented by esters - products of substitution of hydrogen atoms of OH groups in mineral or carboxylic acids by hydrocarbon radicals. They (esters) are involved in
  8. My advice to you: if you want to work (preserve) grain and fruit aromas (esters) and tastes, then you need to apply vacuum distillation. No other distillation methods will give such capabilities and product purity from fusel oils and "stink". One of my friends lives in Georgia (Country on the Black Sea, not a state in the USA) he has a large harvest of tangerines every year. He makes tangerine mash, and then distills it. When I sold him my vacuum distillation controller and told him how to get flavors, he got amazing spirits In Georgia, distillers compete to make a purer alco
  9. To be honest I personally do not understand at all the desire of people to use copper for catalysts. Copper gives off a "bouquet" of medium ethers, I have seen this many times on chromatograms. As soon as copper is used, it does not matter - like plates, like an alambic, or like tubes of electric heaters inside the tank, so the parameters "average ethers" in the chromatogram will always be one and a half to two times higher. Higher compared to pure steel tank and heaters. The most difficult thing in all this is that each person is very sensitive to "average ethers" in his own way.
  10. A little information ๐Ÿ™‚ Colloidal copper. This is one of the main trace elements that are involved in the vital processes of the human body. It is one of the components of human blood and plays a very important role in the oxidation of vitamin C. Among non-ionic colloids, copper is today the strongest fungicide and disinfectant. This is the first Materials in an ultrafine state (dimensions of the order nanometers) have specific properties, which are due to the peculiarities of the formation of the structure and the presence of a large number of atoms located on the surface of the nan
  11. I will support Paul. The use of "catalysts" (special devices) inside the steel tank is the best price-quality option. From the point of view of Chemistry and Physics, in order for chemical reactions to occur with maximum efficiency, it is necessary to provide the largest possible contact surface of the substance-catalyst, and to provide a temperature higher than the "temperature of the beginning of catalytic reactions". That is why catalyst inserts must be in the path of alcohol-water vapor at temperatures above 70 Celsius. Copper does not work below 70 degrees Celsius. The s
  12. My point is that if you do distillation (no matter what liquids or oils) you need to work with heaters or coolers. In any case, if you need to turn water (alcohol) steam into a liquid, you need to take away thermal energy from the steam and direct it somewhere. It can be cold water, it can be atmospheric air. But it should be remembered that water has the highest heat capacity, so water is very well suited for transferring heat energy. Your vehicles are water cooled. Why? because it allows for compact cooling devices. If you have a motorcycle you can estimate how much its cooling
  13. Milking yeast is not a fantasy. Introduction. Classical fermentation (wort fermentation process) is a familiar process. Bacteria (yeast fungi) eat up sugar and release carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol in the process. Everything is very good, but yeast eats sugar and defecates with alcohol at the same time ๐Ÿ™‚ And then we boil the mixture together with the bacteria, kill them, and release alcohol and with it the by-products of the yeast's vital activity, including "heads", "tails" and various toxic substances. What if you don't kill the yeast? We don't kill a cow when we want mi
  14. "Rectification" (from Latin "rectus" - direct and "facio" - do) is a process of separating double or multicomponent mixtures due to countercurrent mass transfer between vapor and liquid. Rectification - separation of liquid mixtures into practically pure components, differing in boiling points, through repeated evaporation of the liquid and condensation of vapors. This is the scientific definition of the term "rectification". From the point of view of this description, distillation in a pot (moonshine still) is not rectification, but is a simple separation of a mixture of different alc
  15. Alex_Sor


    % vol -- temperature boil (teoretical)
  16. Alex_Sor


    I describe (below) what simple equipment you need to buy in order to conduct tests and start moving into the topic of vacuum distillation. You need to provide: 1) tightness. Not all devices are equally gemetichny for excess and negative pressure. Tanks that withstand + 100kPa (+ 1 atm) may not withstand a vacuum of -50kPa. My first device, has a wall thickness of 1.5mm stainless steel and a volume of 20 liters, the bottom and the top cover are flat, because of this, under vacuum, I got the bottom and the cover 5mm inside the tank. The walls (cylinder) stood. 2)
  17. Alex_Sor


    Equipment requirement: 1) withstand negative pressure, without โ€œcollapsingโ€. 2) it is necessary to resolve the issue with the output of ready-made moonshine - there are two options - either the output tank is also under vacuum, or the moonshine is pumped through a membrane pump, and then it is simply poured into a regular container. in my experiments, I simply connected a hose with thick walls to the outlet of the column, and pumped air out of the equipment through it, and in the process, I pumped the moonshine with my pumps, pumped the pumps and pump
  18. Alex_Sor


    Italian pamphlet-article on the vacuum distillation of grappa in comparison with taditsionny distillation. year 2009. Sorry, it is in Italian, I tried to translate their conclusions, and the schemes themselves inside the document are in principle understandable to any Engineer My translate: ...summary : Describes an innovative distiller operating in vacuum and a column without plates, and the profile of volatile compounds of products obtained in different phases of the distillation process under various vacuum conditions, both during the secon
  19. Alex_Sor


    You need to consider applying vacuum distillation. You can use something like a "gin basket" in the path of alcohol vapor, but this path will result in "boiled cherries" instead of a pleasant smell because the temperature of the vapor will be high. I have a scientific article from Italy where the guys made an excellent grape drink (grappa) using vacuum distillation. The drink retained the aromas of grapes and received a strength of 35-55% of alcohol. I myself deal with vacuum distillation issues. Vaccum distillation preserves the subtle aromas of hop grain (if necessary) and grapes.
  20. Second interesting idea, maintain a constant boiling point of alcohol in the hollow column (we will rather focus on the upper point). We will try to predict the temperature change using the lower two sensors. Anything that has a lower temperature should condense directly back into the cube (reflux). this is what we end up with: (this is a hydrometer with 94% alcohol content) As practice has shown, the temperature in the reflux condenser cannot be the basis for controlling the distillation process. The problem is that it differs by 1 - 1.5C, depending on external con
  21. Automation for any moonshine still with a steamer (I do not know how exactly the word for a can or a hollow cylinder at the outlet of the moonshine is translated into English, see the figure and diagrams). Many people have questions about how you can make the work of a moonshine still fully automatic without using expensive solutions. (for example using Arduino). I am collecting simple and unusual solutions that have been posted on the Internet by individual craftsmen in the past years. I propose a simple experiment that can show you what happens to
  22. 1) the presence of CO2 in the inlet mixture is not a problem, it is good for distillation (stripping of the column). This increases productivity. You need to use an agitator in the tank that mixes the mixture before it enters the pump. It is generally useful to quickly stir the mixture in the tank in front of the pump, and add an antifoam agent to the tank, at the rate of 50 ml per 100 liters. An antifoam agent based on silicon, it is inert and does not affect taste and smell, but it will remove foam. Foam is the biggest problem with fast distillation. 2) if there is a lot of CO2, you can
  23. It is very good that there are people who make continuous columns in the USA! My respect! But ... I looked at your continuous apparatus - why do you need 35 plates if you do not select different fractions in your column? it is very inefficient. You have a very tall column. For stripping columns 6-16 trays are sufficient, depending on the quality of the inlet mixture. I am designing stripping and fine columns.
  24. Here is the picture with the graphs that I promised. The horizontal axis is the liquid capacity (load) that the trays can provide. The vertical axis is the steam velocity. The closed loop of each tray type indicates the acceptable range of use for that tray type. As you can see, the bubble cap tray has a very small range of stable operation, and even then at very low vapor and liquid velocities. and here are more options for different plates
  25. There are many more options for valves and spacers. Check out the picture here: http://adiforums.com/topic/11751-anyone-running-continous-stills-really-suprised-at-the-lack-of-them/?do=findComment&comment=69699 Each of the options (according to the picture) has its own advantages and disadvantages. Each of the options can be applied. Each option has its own allowable range of steam velocities inside the column. If I have time, I can write a page of text with a more detailed explanation of what and how, with pictures.
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